During this time, investment and spending declined, and years of little or no economic growth were made worse in when world oil and grain prices significantly dropped. Despite repeated provincial government promises in the s and s to use the enormous royalty revenues generated from oil and gas sales to diversify the economy, it was not until the late s that Alberta diversified into the forestry sector. In the mids, Alberta's fortunes rose with once again higher world prices for its oil and natural gas. Alberta's agricultural industry remains of major importance to the province, the nation and — in grain exports — to the world.
Around the metropolitan areas of Edmonton and Calgary , and in the corridor between the two cities, are dairy farms, poultry operations, as well as cattle, hog and sheep ranches. Wheat and small grain farmers are located particularly in the Peace River region, the Edmonton, Camrose and Lloydminster areas, and in a belt from Red Deer southeast to the United States boundary. Mixed enterprises are found in the crescent sweeping northwest from Lethbridge to Calgary and Red Deer, then northeast to Camrose and Lloydminster, and in the counties north of Edmonton.
The black and brown soils of the mixed-grass prairie and parkland regions provide the environment with the greatest potential for mixed farming. Away from this fertile crescent, especially in the southeast, lie the more specialized ranching and wheat operations, which compensate for their marginal soils with larger size.
Irrigated farming, centered in Lethbridge, produces sugar beets, potatoes and vegetables.
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The non-fuel mining industry also extracts magnetite, peat moss and clay. The province is among the world's largest producers of elemental sulphur from hydrocarbon sources. Small amounts of gold are mined, and the province possesses deposits of low-grade iron ore and uranium in the Lake Athabasca region, which have yet to be fully developed. Coal formed the basis of Alberta's first mining endeavours, in the Lethbridge region in Following an initial decline in the s, and a drastic loss of domestic consumers in the s, Alberta's coal industry reached its lowest point in the early s.
Since then an increase in the domestic market, plus the negotiation of long-term leases to supply the Japanese steel industry and new technologies for coal-liquefaction have pumped new life into the industry. These sands cover about , km 2 in three areas of province — the Athabasca, Peace River and Cold Lake regions. These Albertan reserves represent the third largest oil deposit in the world, following Saudi Arabia and Venezuela. The oil industry in Alberta began with the discovery of the Turner Valley field in However, apart from a brief flurry of activity in the late s, the industry remained small until the discovery of the Leduc field in , followed by the opening of the Woodbend, Redwater and Pembina fields.
Following the opening of the first commercial oil sands operation in , industry growth was exponential. That year, Alberta produced about Ten years later, production had grown by nearly 65 per cent to Since these peak years in the s, oil production has been slowly declining. In , Alberta produced just under Production increased steadily in the latter half of the 20 th century, rising from an annual average of In , Alberta generated See also Fracking.
The petroleum industry has long brought prosperity to Alberta, giving it one of the highest per capita GDPs in the country and some of the lowest taxes and unemployment rates. However, disputes over petroleum pricing and export levels have led to heated debates between Alberta and the federal government, and have fuelled strong provincial-rights and even quasi-separatist political movements. The most serious dispute regarding provincial rights and the resource industry occurred in the s with Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau 's National Energy Program NEP , which limited Alberta from charging other provinces world prices for their oil.
By the mids, following the elimination of the NEP and a recovery in oil prices most disputes were resolved and Alberta's energy sector enjoyed higher world prices for its products; however, Albertans remain antagonistic to any federal interference in resource-based industries.
Forests cover 38 million hectares in Alberta, or about 60 per cent of the province. The Alberta government has, since the late s, aggressively promoted this sector of the economy. In , for example, Alberta harvested Pulp and paper mills are located in the Edmonton and Calgary regions. Only about 2.
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The fish that is caught is namely whitefish , pike , trout and walleye. The expansion of the petroleum industry after the Second World War, particularly during the s, produced a westward shift of financial power within Canada, with Alberta, as the heart of the expanding petroleum industry, benefitting and growing most substantially. In the s, Calgary consolidated its position as a major provincial financial centre and emerged as a contending national centre. By , this number had grown to over 1, companies.
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Most companies were small oil and gas companies, but the ASE also diversified into biotechnology. While river transportation provided the communication network for the fur trade in the 18th and early 19th century, it was rail transportation that opened Alberta to extensive settlement in the late s, and tied the region's economy to central Canada. These routes are considered important to the province's economic well-being.
The loss of branch lines has resulted in the abandonment of numerous rural communities across Alberta and the gradual elimination of old grain elevators that used to distinguish the prairie landscape. The importance of Alberta's highways to the movement of both people and goods has increased since the end of the Second World War. The most heavily travelled route is the multi-lane Highway 2 between Edmonton and Calgary.
Bus routes in Alberta run along the major highway systems. Alberta is home to two international airports, located in Calgary and Edmonton. Regular passenger service to other parts of the country and abroad is provided from these airports, while local provincial air service is provided from smaller municipal airports in the province. Manufacturing in Alberta is closely tied to the dominant resource industries of the province, with petroleum refining, metal fabrication, wood products and construction materials being important components of secondary industry.
During the s the most rapidly expanding manufacturing area was the petrochemical industry , which quickly became the main secondary industry in the province. Construction has traditionally followed the prosperity of the petroleum industry. For example, construction boomed in the s, as oil production expanded rapidly, particularly in Edmonton and Calgary; however, the recessions of the mids and early s stalled new building projects.
However, tied to growth in petroleum production, construction increased rapidly again in the early s. Tourism is also a major contributor to the Alberta economy. The spectacular scenery and year-round recreational facilities of the Rocky Mountain parks — particularly Banff , Jasper and Waterton national parks — draw hundreds of thousands of tourists annually from all over the world. In addition to the parks, many local attractions are also big draws, particularly the Calgary Stampede , a spectacular outdoor rodeo, carnival and musical festival held annually in July.
Additionally, Alberta occasionally hosts special events such as the Commonwealth Games and the World University Games , which were hosted in Edmonton in and respectively, and the Winter Olympics , which were held in Calgary in These special events draw thousands of visitors, millions of dollars in revenue, and have resulted in infrastructure such as the Calgary Olympic Park, which continues to draw tourists.
However, as in other provinces, the traditional powers of the lieutenant-governor have in practice lapsed and he or she now serves primarily a ceremonial function. Executive power is exercised by a Cabinet of ministers selected by the premier , the leader of the political party commanding a majority in the legislative assembly. Each minister presides over one or more departments of government, known as ministries. Historically, Alberta provincial politics has been characterized by governing parties commanding huge majorities in the legislature, remaining in power for lengthy periods and then being decisively beaten by a new political force.
This pattern was established by the Liberals under Alberta's first premier, Alexander C. Rutherford —10 , who, in the first provincial election in , took 22 of 25 seats and 58 per cent of the popular vote. Similar Liberal victories were recorded in , and under Rutherford and his successors, Arthur L.
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Sifton —17 and Charles Stewart — The United Farmers of Alberta UFA , led by Herbert Greenfield —25 , swept to power in the provincial election with 38 all rural of 61 seats, despite gaining only 29 per cent of the popular vote; the UFA was propelled into power by the by agrarian unrest and the post- First World War rise of progressivism and populism. However, as a result of the charismatic campaign led by William Aberhart , the leader of the new Social Credit League , and the economic problems plaguing the province as a result of the Great Depression , in the election the Social Credit League took 56 of 63 seats with 54 per cent of the popular vote.
However, they were swept aside by the victory of Peter Lougheed —85 and the Progressive Conservatives PCs in , who won 49 of 75 seats and 46 per cent of the popular vote. Lougheed and the PCs crushed all opposition in the , and elections. In , the first large challenge to PC power emerged from a resurgence in leftist opposition headed by the New Democratic Party and, to a lesser degree, the Liberal Party.
In , Getty's PCs won another majority despite the continued drop in their popular vote.
The provincial election produced a showdown between two of Alberta's popular big city mayors, former Calgary mayor Ralph Klein , who succeeded Getty as PC leader, and Laurence Decore, former Edmonton mayor and new leader of a resurgent Liberal Party, who waged a campaign on fiscal responsibility and deficit reduction. Klein — and the PCs emerged with a seat-toseat majority on the strength of a split in the vote between the Conservative rural south and the Liberal urban north.
The and elections returned the PCs to stronger majorities and an increase in their popular vote. Klein made dramatic moves to reduce the role of government by privatizing the sale of liquor distribution and motor vehicle, birth, death and marriage registration.
His policy of deficit reduction, and eventual elimination of the provincial debt, through drastic cuts to public services and increased revenue from natural resources, preserved his popularity among a majority of the voters. Klein's disagreements with the federal Liberals on health care issues — and the more traditional points of conflict, i.
In , Klein resigned from politics, and was replaced by Ed Stelmach — In the election, Stelmach, whose popularity as the head of the PCs had been weak, led the party to a stunning majority, winning 72 of 83 seats. During his term, Stelmach continued some of the cuts in spending that had made Klein popular. In , Stelmach resigned as premier and head of the Progressive Conservatives. Stelmach was replaced by his justice minister, Alison Redford. However, the election saw a further rise in the popularity of the Wildrose Alliance Party: the Progressive Conservatives lost five seats and their popular vote was reduced to 44 per cent; while the Wildrose Alliance Party gained 17 seats and increased their popular vote to 34 per cent.
In the years following the election, Redford and the Progressive Conservative Party suffered a further drop in the polls. With little support from caucus and the threat of a non-confidence vote, Redford resigned on 19 March She left with a personal approval rating of just 18 per cent, and party support at 19 per cent. By comparison, support for the Wildrose Party was 46 per cent.
senrei-exorcism.com/images/track/smartphone-tracker-galaxy-a30.php He was sworn in as premier on 15 September Prentice, along with his appointees for the ministries of health and education, did not hold a legislative seat when he was sworn into office. However, on 27 October , Prentice and his Cabinet ministers became elected officials in a by-election. In the spring of , Prentice called an election — one year earlier than the provincially legislated fixed date.
Drafted in the face of plummeting oil prices, the PC budget projected a multi-billion-dollar deficit and proposed increases to certain provincial taxes.